SERVQUAL model (SERVQUAL Model)
SERVQUAL model theory is the late 20th century, 80 scientists from the American Marketing Parra off Raman (A. Parasuraman), to special Han Maule (Zeithaml) and white Switzerland (Berry) based on total quality management (Total Quality Management, TQM) theory proposed in the service sector, a new service quality evaluation system, the core of his theory of the level of service perceived by users and users expect the difference between the level of service level (so-called to exceed the user's expectations. The model is: Servqual score = actual feelings Score - Expectation Score.
SERVQUAL service quality will be divided into five levels: physical infrastructure (Tangibles), reliability (Reliability), responsiveness (Responsiveness) to protect nature (Assurance), affective involvement (Empathy), each level has been broken down into a number of issues, through the questionnaire, which allows the user expectations for each question, the actual value and the minimum acceptable value of the experience to rate . by the establishment of the 22 specific factors related to that it. and then through the questionnaire, scoring and overall customer service quality scores calculated,
the past decade, the model has been widely accepted by managers and academics and adoption. model to differences based on the theory that the customer expectations of service quality and customer service organizations from the actual differences between the services received. models were evaluated with five scale acceptable to the different customer service quality of service. Research that, SERVQUAL for measuring information systems service quality, SERVQUAL is an evaluation of service quality and improve the quality of service action to determine an effective tool.
SERVQUAL formula: SQ = 622i = 1 (Pi - Ei) where:
SQ as perceived service quality;
Pi for the i-factor in terms of customer perception scores;
Ei for the i-factor in customer expectations scores (i = 1, 2, 3 ,..... n, n = 22).
SQ obtained from the above equation is equally important in the five attributes of individual customers under the conditions of the total perceived quality, but in real life, the customer decided to quality of service about the importance of each attribute is different.
Therefore, through customer surveys, should determine the service quality attributes for each weight, then the weighted average to draw a more reasonable Servqual score. < br> formula: SQ = 65j = 1wj 622i = 1 (Pi - Ei) (i = 1, 2, 3 22, j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) wj for the first j attributes weight. < br> At this point the SQ will be divided by the factor scores of the number of n (n = 22), to get a single customer Servqual average score.
Finally, the survey scores for all customers Servqual sum, divided by the number of customers m, to obtain the services of an enterprise product Servqual average score, which Servqual = 6mi = 1SQiPm
SERVQUAL model to measure the five scale
SERVQUAL model of service quality in five scales; tangible assets, reliability, response speed, trust and empathy.
tangible physical facilities, equipment, personnel and communication materials, appearance; such as: equipment availability, staff spirit, as well as other tools used to provide services and equipment in good condition.
reliability of the reliable, accurate and ability to fulfill service commitments; such as: provide services in a timely manner and the fulfillment of its commitments.
responsiveness and rapid delivery of services to help customers desire;
assurance staff has the knowledge, etiquette and confidence and credible expression of the ability;
of put ourselves in empathy for the sake of customers and pay particular attention to customer
SERVQUAL model the evolution of
PZB (1985) for the service quality factors (determinants of service quality) made of ten, the quality of customer service experience for the main components:
1. Reliability (reliability): consistency of performance, performance, and the importance of commitment to consumers.
2. reactivity (responsiveness): Staff will provide services and immediate.
3. Competence (competence): whether staff has the expertise and skills in the implementation of services.
4. proximity (access): proximity, contact or contact means easy.
5. politeness (courtesy): customer service or telephone answering service, we must be attentive and courteous, respectful, considerate and friendly. < br> 6. communicating (communication): the consumer can and honest feelings.
8. security (security): from consumers worried about danger, risk of confusion as the status of style.
9. understanding of (understanding / knowing the customer): the understanding of customer needs.
10. Tangibles (tangibles): services, physical evidence and other service facilities.
SERVQUAL model using
SERVQUAL model widely used in the service industry, to understand the target customer's service needs and perceptions and to provide a set of management methods and measuring service quality.
within the enterprise, with the SERVQUAL model to understand the perception of quality of service staff to achieve the objective of improving services.
medical services based on SERVQUAL Quality Evaluation Model
mm HA hospital pp
of Chinese Abstract: Master: Wang Li Niu Instructor: Professor Zhang Liang Views: 1783
quality of medical services, the medical service market in the first element not only directly related to patient safety and outcomes, and hospital survival is the primary condition. To continue to improve hospital quality of service, quality of service evaluation and management of medical services have become the core and focus.
In the quality level. and satisfaction rating than you can learn more information about the perceptions and expectations, and evaluation results are more objective and real. But SERVQUAL construct our own quality evaluation system for health care research is still rare. Therefore, situation of our country and the special nature of the medical industry, the establishment of the medical service quality SERVQUAL-based evaluation model, evaluation, forecasting demand for medical services in patients, examine the existing medical service quality, and has some innovative and practical significance.
purpose is to study this subject of medical service quality based on SERVQUAL evaluation model for the initial establishment of China's medical industry, scientific and reasonable, based on the SERVQUAL evaluation of medical service quality evaluation model, including the system of rating scales for indicator components Interpretation methods and scale so as to understand the medical needs of patients, for their own health care quality evaluation, to provide a tool to improve the quality of service. In addition, by understanding the basic situation of patients with health care quality evaluation of the impact of a deeper understanding of The evaluation model.
1. access to a large number of domestic and foreign literature research on the SERVQUAL scale model of medical service quality theory and methods, interpretation of the relevant literature.
2. in-depth interviews in this study medical service quality evaluation model, index selection, the survey content and other aspects of repeated interviews and rigorous argument, in Medical Management and Union Hospital, the participation of relevant experts to complete.
3. using standardized questionnaires standardized questionnaire, including patient medical service quality expectations and actual feelings of the questionnaire survey.
4. statistical analysis questionnaire data entry using Microsoft Office Excel2003 by SPSS11.5 handle all the data. According to information on the nature of the use of T test, ANOVA, factor analysis, processing of bio-statistical methods.
1. SERVQUAL based on its evaluation of medical service quality theory
Grow by Ruth customer perception of service quality theory, PZB's gap theory and the SERVQUAL service quality evaluation methods, and more that the quality of security than the first three links (the structure m m process results) and the limitations of the scientific theory of analysis, combined with our national conditions, the initial establishment of the SERVQUAL-based health care quality evaluation model of the theoretical framework. the main consideration of the framework and the actual perception of the expectations of patients for medical services, technical quality and functional quality of both proposed tangibles, reliability, trust, responsiveness, human services, effective and economic evaluation in seven dimensions.
2. SERVQUAL-based health care services Quality Evaluation Model
(1) In this paper, literature, in-depth interviews and pre-survey evaluation index system of pre-correction, ultimately formed, including tangibles, reliability, trust, responsiveness, human services, effectiveness and economy of seven dimensions, a total of 28 secondary indicators of the evaluation index system.
(2) letter of evaluation model and validity analysis: Reliability analysis of mainly Crown Bach (Cronbach) a method and split-half reliability coefficient method, four hospitals in total a factor 0.9351,0.9555,0.9473 and 0.9428, respectively, split-half reliability were a total of 0.8626 , 0.9090,0.8632,0.9128, with very high reliability. validity analysis using factor analysis, four hospital information Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO value that is) results show that suitable for factor analysis and factor analysis results suggest that the extracted seven factors and indicators consistent system of seven dimensions, with good validity.
(3) interpretation of evaluation results Methods: In this paper, margin calculations, T test and analysis of quadrant analysis .
3. single factor statistical analysis
T test analysis can not believe that gender, place of residence and are residing in health care quality evaluation of patients had significant differences. variance analysis showed that age can not be segment, educational level, occupation, income level and health insurance in the form of patient care quality evaluation of significant differences.
(1) Quality of medical services should be considered in the expectations of its influencing factors in patients role;
(2) established based on the SERVQUAL model of quality evaluation of medical services, including medical services based on SERVQUAL quality evaluation index system and scale of interpretation methods;
(3) health care system based on SERVQUAL service quality evaluation index system has high reliability and validity;
(4) the medical service quality SERVQUAL-based evaluation model can initially be used for different levels of quality and size of the hospital assessment;
(5) use The evaluation model, the basic situation of the differences between patients with the medical service quality evaluation is basically not affected.
SERVQUAL service quality evaluation model and its modification of the
text / Lin Hang Li Mengjun
In the same quality of products, basically the same core product prices, the service is the only correct way beyond the competition aware of services in modern society the importance of the economy. However, how to evaluate the level of service quality research scholars have been the problem, a widely used model is SERVQUAL evaluation. It is also a controversial evaluation because of its theoretical basis and design of the survey methodology itself has led to its limits. When the time specific to different industries, SERVQUAL evaluation model needs to be some amendments to adapt to the actual situation.
service features and classification 2.1 Service characteristics
in the field of service management research on the and more is built on top of the traditional marketing concept, service is seen as an appendage of tangible goods. but then, the service tends to separate from the traditional concept of the marketing concept and discussed the content of mm deep ownership services and clients state of change.
Grove Ruth (Gronroos, 2000) definition of service: Service is a series of more or less intangible activities constitutes a process, this process is the customer and employee tangible resources, carried out the interaction between these physical resources or physical products, physical care system is the solution to the problem as provided for customer.
From the above definition, we can see services usually No quality is intangible, can not be visual and tactile perception, but also that service customers after the products are consumer interests can hardly be perceived, even if the intangibility of services. services is also reflected in the characteristics of an integral, quality differences, not be stored and non-transferable ownership, etc., indivisible nature of service production and consumption processes occur simultaneously, can not be stored at the time of service refers can not be stored, composition and quality of service level changes reflect its quality difference.
2.2 Definition and classification of service industries
hypothesis: some time: the beginning of all the services provided to the end; Seller: The means to achieve the required service to maintain the minimum staff; Buyer personnel: Service objects or the interests of access to services in the most direct staff
certain period of time, the number of the Seller (S) and the Purchaser Personnel (P) ratio, that is S / P. When S/Pg1, the industry was: Skills Upgrading industry; S / P <1, the industry is: quality decrease industry.
the so-called classification, should be avoided as much as possible the participation of subjective factors, objective data and take full account of the physical characteristics to divide things. Therefore, the provision of services process, we can assume that service personnel are best efforts to provide services.
by observing certain services, such as passenger transport, hospitals, and at the same level of payment, the service will lead to excessive sales decline in the quality of service, limited because the equipment has played a decisive role. On the contrary, other service industries, such as lawyers advice, car repair, due to the repeated service sales, service personnel as a key factor in the service, their experience and skills to enhance the quality of services will lead to increased. Therefore, a more concise and general classification of the service sector could be: diminishing the quality of industry sectors and skills upgrading.
3. service quality conceptual model
American scholars Parasuraman, Zeithamal and Berry in 1985 the gap model was proposed, which describes the root cause of quality of service, as shown in Figure 3-1.
Gap 1: do not understand the customer's expectations is not enough as marketing research and management activities with customers is not enough communication between the , showing the managers perceived inconsistency with the customer expectations.
Gap 2: Bad quality of service standards for quality of service does not guarantee a lack of understanding on the feasibility, standardization work is not enough, and the lack of a clear target, leading to the gap between 2
3: service specifications and actual delivery of services is to generate the difference between the reasons for this gap. in general, because employees do not want service in accordance with specifications.
Gap 4: Service assurance and service delivery do not match. inadequate internal communication and the exchange of over-commitment of consumers, leading to the gap between actual and commitment to service.
Gap 5: Expected service experience of service differentiation mm, the gap between 1 and 4 led to 5 generation gap. This gap leads to customer satisfaction, quality of service evaluation.
4. SERVQUAL evaluation model and its practical application
4.1 SERVQUAL evaluation model
SERVQUAL in English quality) of the acronym, the word first appeared in 1988 by Parasuraman, Zeithamal and Berry co-wrote an article three as br> SERVQUAL customer perceived service quality evaluation is based on customer expectations on quality of service, the first measure of customer service expectations, and then measure the perception of customer service, which calculates the difference between the two, and as the basis for judging the quality of service levels.
the specific content of two parts: The first part consists of 22 small projects, record the customer service industry in a particular company's expectations of excellence. The second part also includes 22 project, which measures consumers to specific companies in this industry (Jibei evaluation company) feel. and then two parts in comparison to the results obtained by each of the five dimensions of a . The smaller the gap, the higher the evaluation of the quality of service. consumers expect from the greater sensibility, the lower the evaluation of the quality of service. On the contrary, the gap is smaller, the higher the evaluation of the quality of service. So SERVQUAL is a very inclusive 44 item scale, which come from the five service quality dimensions of customer expectations and the degree to be able to experience a 7-point questionnaire and 7 said he fully agreed that 1 is completely disagree, * that score the opposite. Here are three scholars of the five dimensions.
4.1.1 Tangibles (Tangibles)
include the actual physical nature of facilities, equipment, and a list of other service personnel. Its components are: 1. with modern services and facilities; 2 . services attractive; 3. employees have clean clothing and coats; 4. the company's facilities and the services they provide to match
4.1.2 Reliability (Reliability)
reliability is reliable and accurately carry out their service commitments. The components are: 5. commitment to customers what the company can be completed in time; 6. customers in trouble, to show interest and help; 7. the company is reliable; 8 . to provide the promised time of service; 9. an accurate record of related records.
4.1.3 responsiveness (Responsiveness)
responsive means to help customers improve service levels and quickly will. its components are : 10. can not expect them to deliver services to customers on time time *; 11. expect them to provide services in a timely manner is unrealistic *; 12. Staff are not always willing to help customers *; 13. Staff are too busy to have been working with could not immediately provide services to meet the needs of customers *.
4.1.4 Assurance (Assurance)
assurance refers to employees with knowledge, courtesy and credible expression of the confidence and ability. its components are : 14. employees are trustworthy; 15. engaged in the transaction, the customer will feel at ease; 16. Staff is polite; 17. Employees can receive appropriate support from the company to provide better service.
4.1 .5 empathy of (Empathy)
Empathy is the way that care for and provide customers with personalized service. The components are: 18. the company will not provide individual services for customers *; 19. employees will not give customers individual care *; 20. can not expect employees to understand customer needs *; 21. companies do not give priority to the interests of customers; * 22. Company provided service can not meet the needs of all our customers *.
5. Evaluation of the SERVQUAL model proposed amendment
5.1 SERVQUAL evaluation model is based on the limitations of
SERVQUAL conceptual model of service quality, and given the gap in the five dimensions and five different scoring system to establish a complete , under the sub-object worthy of the level of service quality evaluation to quantify the evaluation. in the form of payment collection through questionnaire evaluation of customer perception of the quality of the object and its service quality, the final weighted score by some.
First, SERVQUAL Evaluation of the developer division aspects of the service sector is This classification method is SERVQUAL evaluation model must have its limitations, it can not be classified in the above description better than the industry or somewhere in between the characteristics of the industry.
Second, SERVQUAL evaluation model in five dimensions to carry out investigation and analysis, followed by the five dimensions of tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy of. in the face of different industries, the importance of the five different dimensions, there are weights Questionnaire design assignment and the order in two aspects, which are affecting the use of SERVQUAL model and accuracy evaluation.
Moreover, SERVQUAL evaluation model is based on three sectors (telephone repair, retail banking and insurance ) in a sample of five companies on the basis of investigation conducted. On the one hand, the limited sample size of the problem led to the SERVQUAL not clear and objective. On the other hand, the choice in the industry, telephone repair, retail banking three industries and the insurance industry can not fully reflect all the common features of the service sector, at least diminishing the quality of passenger transport industry, the characteristics of these are not shown.
Finally, the SERVQUAL model is a pre-evaluation study that Experience the ultimate in customer service product benefit questionnaire prior to the making of the SERVQUAL the answer. tell us the characteristics of service products and customer service from the consumer interests are often the product has not been perceived, it is difficult to be noticed, or to go through Over time, consumer services, in order to enjoy this feeling that the interests of the Russian presence. That is, customer expectations and perceptions may in time have a strong discontinuity, but the practical application of SERVQUAL in the evaluation method in the time it takes on continuity, to ensure the smooth implementation of the study.
evaluation model amendments to the classification in accordance with this article, the service industry can be divided into descending skills to enhance the industry and quality of the industry. the skills to enhance the industry in a service process provision, the service is greater than or equal to the number of customers, the customer seeks is so personalized and customized services, so the service assurance and empathy of the more important.
to law firms, for example, often In a service process requires one or more of the lawyers for the client services to ensure the accuracy and success of the service. In five dimensions, the importance of consulting lawyers should be as follows: assurance, empathy nature reliability, responsiveness and tangibles.
not the same as that for decreasing quality of the industry, reliability and tangibles in customer perception of service is more influential. because of diminishing the quality of service provided by the key to success in the industry more dependent fixed equipment, support, and equipment needs of customers is the convenience and quickness.
to passenger transport industry, for example, the customer service is directly accounts for the main part of the machinery and equipment, the customer is more practical to enjoy the pursuit of fast transportation services, so they will be more concerned about the schedule promised by service providers, etc., then the five dimensions, importance should be followed: reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy of and responsiveness.
Finally, in the final analysis of the questionnaire process, different service industries and enterprises should be based on the actual situation faced by the five dimensions of scores under the weight of a reasonable ratio, the final summation value. < br> Q = total score of tangible T * a1 + reliability Rel * a2 + responsiveness Res * a3 + Guaranteed A * a4 + transference of E * a5
(a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 = 1)
Of course, the size distribution of weight will lead to a revised SERVQUAL lack of uniformity and standardization. more feasible approach is the development of different industries can be unified within the industry a unified weight program ai.
Full Text The amendment in the SERVQUAL method is based on the quality of skills to enhance the industry and by decreasing based on the industry. the one hand, the issues raised in the article by field observations, argument, indeed the current model of service quality evaluation problems. However, whether the division of the service sector be improved, the weight of the five latitude to set the specific calculation method has yet to be made, so their view of the further study of the text is very valuable.
(Author: Wuhan University of Technology School of Management)